KHANATE OF KALAT IN THE LIGHT OF IBN KHALDUN’S CONCEPT OF ASABBIYA (1731-1893)
Balochistan being a peripheral area of the Indian sub-continent had a society tribal in nature. This was also due to the resources of topography. Tribal societies guard their independence jealously, but there is a modicum of organization necessary for self-preservation, and the main contenders were the Khans of Kalat. Matters became complicated when the British extended their sway to Balochistan. Its ports changed masters and among the rulers it was only Naseer II who could invoke Asabiya, the sense of solidarity as theorized by Ibn Khaldun to confront the common enemy. Khudaidad Khan had a long rule but it became contentious ever since he sought the help of the British in establishing his rule, which simultaneously alienated the Baloch tribes. Baloch history before independence was unlike any other province of British India, and thus even after independence a tribal structure with the dominance of sardars continued to exist, complicating thus the political process of Pakistan.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Quarterly Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.